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English Language -- African-American

The following sources are recommended by a professor whose research specialty is African-American English.


Six Superlative Sources


· Dillard, J.L. (1972) Black English. Random House.

· Labov, William (1972). Language in the Inner-City: Studies in the Black English Vernacular. University of Pennsylvania Press.

· Smitherman, Geneva (1977). Talkin and Testifyin: The Language of Black America. Houghton Mifflin.


· Baugh, John (1999). Out of the Mouths of Slaves: African American Language and Educational Malpractice. University of Texas Press.

· Lippi-Green, Rosina. (1997). English with an Accent: Language, Ideology, and Discrimination in the United States. Routledge.

· Mufwene, Salikoko S., John Rickford, Guy Bailey, and John Baugh (1998). African American English: Structure, History, and Use. Routledge.

Other Excellent Sources

· Dialects: African American Vernacular English. The Center for Applied Linguistics.

· Ebonics. Linguist.

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"The Infography about African-American English"
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