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Monarch Butterfly

The following sources are recommended by a professor emeritus whose research specialty is the Monarch butterfly.


Six Superlative Sources

· Brower, L.P. 1984. Chemical defence in butterflies. Pages 109-134 in R.I. Vane-Wright and P.R. Ackery, editors, The Biology of Butterflies, Academic Press.

· Urquhart, F.A. 1987. The Monarch Butterfly: International Traveler. Nelson-Hall.

· Malcolm, S.B., and M.P. Zalucki. 1993. Biology and conservation of the monarch butterfly: concluding remarks. Pages 397-402 in S.B. Malcolm and M.P. Zalucki, editors, Biology and Conservation of the Monarch Butterfly, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County.

· Brower, L.P. 1995. Understanding and misunderstanding the migration of the monarch butterfly (Nymphalidae) in North America: 1857-1995. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 49:304-385.

· Grace, E.S. 1997. The Nature of Monarch Butterflies. Greystone Books.

· Journey North: A Global Study of Wildlife Migration. Web site that tracks the annual migration and overwintering of wildlife, including the monarch butterfly.

Other Excellent Sources

· Ackery, P.R., and R.I. Vane-Wright. 1984. Milkweed Butterflies: Their Cladistics and Biology. Cornell University Press.

· Brower, L.P. 2001. Canary in the cornfield: the monarch and the Bt corn controversy. Orion Magazine 20:32-41.

· Brower, L.P., G. Castilleja, A. Peralta, J. Lopez-Garcia, L. Bojorquez-Tapia, S. Diaz, D. Melgarejo, and M. Missrie. 2002. Quantitative changes in forest quality in a principal overwintering area of the monarch butterfly in Mexico: 1971 to 1999. Conservation Biology 16:346-359.

· Malcolm, S.B., B.J. Cockrell, and L.P. Brower. 1993. Spring recolonization of eastern North America by the monarch butterfly: successive brood or single sweep migration? Pages 253-267 in S.B. Malcolm and M.P. Zalucki, editors, Biology and Conservation of the Monarch Butterfly. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County.

· Michoacan Reforestation Fund. Foundation that has planted over 500,000 trees near the overwintering sites in Mexico.

· Monarch Butterfly Sanctuary Foundation. Foundation that supports student research and conservation activities in Mexico.

· Monarch Watch. An interactive web site created by the University of Kansas Entomology Program.

· Mouritsen, H., and B.J. Frost. 2002. Virtual migration in tethered flying monarch butterflies reveals their orientation mechanisms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA Online.

· Riley, C.V. 1871. Two of our common butterflies. Their natural history; with some general remarks on transformation and protective imitation as illustrated by them. Pages 142-175 in C.V. Riley, editor, Third Annual Report on the Noxious, Beneficial and Other Insects of the State of Missouri, Missouri State Board of Agriculture.

· Urquhart, F.A. 1960. The Monarch Butterfly. University of Toronto Press.

· Wassenaar, L.I., and K.A. Hobson. 1998. Natal origins of migratory monarch butterflies at wintering colonies in Mexico: new isotopic evidence. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 95:15436-15439.

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