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The following sources are recommended by a professor whose research specialty is hummingbirds.


Six Superlative Sources

· Johnsgard, Paul A.: "The Hummingbirds of North America." 2nd edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, 1997, ISBN 1560987081. The most comprehensive account of the biology of hummingbirds, with life histories of the 47 North American species occurring north of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Mexico.

· Grant, Karen A., and Grant, Verne: "Hummingbirds and Their Flowers." Columbia University Press, 1968, ASIN 0231031262. A thorough discussion of North American hummingbird flowers and their interactions with hummingbird pollinators.

· This web site has information on attracting hummingbirds, feeders, natural history, research, organizations, photographs, and links to additional sources.

· The Hummingbird Web Site. This page offers information on hummingbird behavior, identification, migration, and nests, plus regional lists of hummingbird plants for the garden.

· The Hummingbird Society is a nonprofit organization founded by Dr. Ross Hawkins for the purpose of encouraging international understanding and conservation of hummingbirds with a quarterly journal, The Hummingbird Connection.

· Tyrell, Esther, and Tyrell, Robert: "Hummingbirds, Their Life and Behavior: A Photographic Study of the North American Species." Crown Publishers, 1985, ISBN 0517553368. Breath-taking photographs of North American species visiting native flowers.

Other Excellent Sources

· Professor Ethan Temeles's Homepage. This web site discusses recent research on mobile hummingbird flowers and petals as nectar guides, with downloadable videos of hummingbirds at flowers.

· Feinsinger, Peter, and Colwell, Robert K.: "Community organization among neotropical nectar-feeding birds," American Zoologist, 1978, volume 18, pp. 779-795. Concise account of the various modes of flower use by hummingbirds, and how these modes relate to their bills and size and aggressive behavior.

· Hainsworth, F. Reed: "Energy regulation in hummingbirds," American Scientist, 1981, volume 69, pp. 420-429. A thorough discussion of the energetics and metabolism of hummingbirds.

· Ewald, Paul W., and Bransfield, Raymond J.: "Territory quality and territorial behavior in two sympatric species of hummingbirds," Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 1987, volume 20, pp. 285-293. Best experimental demonstration to date of the roles of size and aggression in nectar use by hummingbirds.

· Temeles, Ethan J.: "A new dimension to hummingbird-flower relationships," Oecologia, 1996, volume 105, pp. 517-523. Excellent experimental demonstration of the advantages and disadvantages of long and short bills.

· Greenewalt, Crawford H.: "Hummingbirds." American Museum of Natural History and Doubleday, 1960, reissued by Dover Publications, 1990, ISBN 0486264319. A detailed account of hummingbird feathers, color, and iridescence, and the mechanics of flight, with photographs.

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"The Infography about Hummingbirds"
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