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Color Names across Languages

The following sources are recommended by a professor emeritus whose research specialty is the cross-cultural semantics of color identification.


Six Superlative Sources

· Berlin, Brent, and Paul Kay (1999) Basic Color Terms: Their Universality and Evolution. University of California Press.

· Conklin, Harold C. (1955) Hanunóo color categories. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 11: 339-344.

· Heider, Eleanor Rosch (1972) Universals in color naming and memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology 93: 1-20.

· Hardin, C.L, and Luisa Maffi (eds) (1997) Color Categories in Thought and Language. Cambridge University Press.

· Kay, Paul, and Chad K. McDaniel (1978) The linguistic significance of the meanings of basic color terms. Language 54: 610-646.

· Kay, Paul, and Luisa Maffi (1999) Color appearance and the emergence and evolution of basic color lexicons. American Anthropologist 101: 743-760.

Other Excellent Sources

· Abramov, I., and J. Gordon (1994) Color appearance: On seeing red -- or yellow, or green, or blue. Annual Review of Psychology 45: 451-485.

· Abramov, I. (1997) Physiological mechanisms of color vision. In C.L. Hardin and L. Maffi (eds), Color Categories in Thought and Language. Cambridge University Press.

· André, Jacques (1949) Etude sur les Termes de Couleur dans la Langue Latine. G. Klincksieck.

· Berlin, Brent, and Elois Ann Berlin (1975) Aguaruna color categories. American Ethnologist 2: 61-87.

· Berlin, Brent, Paul Kay, and William R. Merrifield (1985) Color term evolution: Recent evidence from the World Color Survey. Paper presented to the 84th Meeting of the American Anthropological Association.

· Bohannon, Paul (1963) Social Anthropology. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

· Bornstein, Marc H. (1973) Color vision and color naming: A psychophysiological hypothesis of cultural difference. Psychological Bulletin 80: 257-285.

· Bornstein, Marc H. (1973) The psychophysiological component of cultural difference in color naming and illusion susceptibility. Behavioral Science Notes 1: 41-101.

· Brown, Roger W., and Eric H. Lenneberg (1954) A study of language and cognition. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 49: 454-462.

· Brown, Roger W. (1976) Reference: In memorial tribute to Eric Lenneberg. Cognition 4: 125-153.

· Burnham, R.W., and J.R. Clark (1955) A test of hue memory. Journal of Applied Psychology 39: 164-172.

· Collier, George A. (1973) Review of basic color terms. Language 49: 245-248.

· Collier, George A. (1976) Further evidence for universal color categories. Language 52: 884-890.

· Conklin, Harold C. (1973) Color categorization: Review of Basic Color Terms, by Brent Berlin and Paul Kay. Language 75: 931-942.

· De Valois, Russell L., I. Abramov, and G.H. Jacobs (1966) Analysis of response patterns of LGN cells. Journal of the Optical Society of America 56: 966-977.

· De Valois, Russell L., and G.H. Jacobs (1968) Primate color vision. Science 162: 533-540.

· De Valois, Russel L., H.C. Morgan, M.C. Polson, W.R. Mead, and E.M. Hull (1974) Psychophysical studies of monkey vision: I. Macaque luminosity and color vision tests. Vision Research 14: 53-67.

· De Valois, Russell L., and Karen K. De Valois (1993) A multi-stage color model. Vision Research 33: 1053-1065.

· De Valois, Russell L., and Karen K. De Valois (1996) A three-stage color model comment. Vision Research 36:833-836.

· Dougherty, Janet W.D. (1975) A universalist analysis of variation and change in color semantics. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California.

· Dougherty, Janet W.D. (1977) Color categorization in West Futunese: Variability and change. In B.G. Blount and M. Sanches (eds), Sociocultural Dimensions of Language Change. Plenum.

· Durbin, Marshall (1972) Review of basic color terms. Semiotica 6: 257-278.

· Gladstone, William E. (1858) Studies on Homer and the Homeric Age. Oxford University Press.

· Gleason, H.A. (1961) An Introduction to Descriptive Linguistics. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

· Greenfield, P.J. (1987) What is grey, brown, pink, and sometimes purple? The range of wild-card color terms. American Anthropologist 88: 908-916.

· Hage, Per, and Kristen Hawkes (1975) Binumarin color categories. Ethnology 24: 287-300.

· Hardin, C.L. (1993) Van Brakel and the not-so-naked emperor. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 44(1): 137-150; 44(2): 377.

· Heider, Eleanor Rosch (1972) Probabilities, sampling and the ethnographic method: The case of Dani colour names. Man 7: 448-466.

· Heider, Eleanor Rosch, and Donald C. Olivier (1972) The structure of the color space for naming and memory in two languages. Cognitive Psychology 3: 337-354.

· Heinrich, Albert C. (1972) A non-European system of color classification. Anthropological Linguistics 14: 220-227.

· Hickerson, Nancy (1975) Two studies of color: Implications for cross-cultural comparability of semantic categories. In D. Kinkade, K. Hale and O. Werner (eds), Linguistics and Anthropology: In Honor of C.F. Voegelin. De Ridder.

· Kay, Paul (1975) Synchronic variability and diachronic change in basic color terms. Language in Society 4: 257-270.

· Kay, Paul, and Willett Kempton (1984) What is the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis? American Anthropologist 86: 65-79.

· Kay, Paul, Brent Berlin, and William Merrifield (1991) Biocultural implications of systems of color naming. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 1: 12-25.

· Kay, Paul, Brent Berlin, Luisa Maffi, and William Merrifield (1997) Color naming across languages. In C.L. Hardin and Luisa Maffi (eds), Color Categories in Thought and Language. Cambridge University Press.

· Kay, Paul (1999) The emergence of basic color lexicons hypothesis: A comment on "The vocabulary of colour with particular reference to Ancient Greek and Classical Latin" by John Lyons. In Alexander Borg (ed), The Language of Colour in the Mediterranean. Almqvist and Wiksell International.

· Kay, Paul, and Brent Berlin (1997) There are non-trivial constraints on color categorization: Commentary on a paper by B.A.C. Saunder and J. van Brakel. Brain and Behavior Sciences 20: 196-202.

· Kemmerer, D.L. (1995) Towards a cognitive neuroscience analysis of the meanings of basic color terms. Cognitive Science Technical Report #95-7. SUNY.

· Krauss, Robert M. (1968) Language as a symbolic process. American Scientist 56: 265-278.

· Kuschel Rolf, and Torben Monberg (1974) "We don't talk much about colour here": A study of colour semantics on Bellona Island. Man 9: 213-242.

· Landar, Herbert J., Susan M. Ervin, and Arnold E. Horrowitz (1960) Navajo color categories. Language 36: 368-382.

· Lantz, De Lee, and Volney Stefflre (1964) Language and cognition revisited. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 69: 472-481.

· Lenneberg, Erik H. (1961) Color naming, color recognition, color discrimination: A reappraisal. Perceptual and Motor Skills 12: 375-382.

· Lenneberg, Erik H., and John M. Roberts (1956) The Language of Experience: A Study in Methodology. Memoir 13 of International Journal of American Linguistics.

· Levinson, S.A. (1997) The theory of basic color terms and Yildnye. Working papers of the Cognitive Anthropology Group, Max Plank Institute for Psycholinguistics.

· Lucy, John A. (1996) The scope of linguistic relativity: An analysis and review of empirical research. In John J. Gumperz and Stephen C. Levinson (eds), Rethinking Linguistic Relativity. Cambridge University Press.

· Lucy, John A. (1997) The linguistics of color. In C.L. Hardin and Luisa Maffi (eds), Color Categories in Thought and Language. Cambridge University Press.

· Lucy, John A., and Shweder, Richard A. (1979) The effect of incidental conversation on memory for focal colors. American Anthropologist 90: 923-931.

· Lyons, John (1997) The vocabulary of colour with particular reference to Ancient Greek and Classical Latin. In Alexander Borg (ed), The Language of Colour in the Mediterranean. Otto Harrassowitz.

· MacLaury, Robert E. (1987) Coextensive semantic ranges: Different names for distinct vantages of one category. Papers from the 23rd Annual Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society, Part I., pp. 268-282.

· MacLaury, Robert E. (1987) Color-category evolution and Shuswap yellow-with-green. American Anthropologist 89: 107-124.

· MacLaury, Robert E. (1991) Exotic color categories: Linguistic relativity to what extent? Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 1: 26-51.

· MacLaury, Robert E. (1992) From brightness to hue: An explanatory model of color-category evolution. Current Anthropology 33: 137-186.

· MacLaury, Robert E. (1997) Color and Cognition in Meso-American Languages: Constructing Categories as Vantages. University of Texas Press.

· MacLaury, Robert E. (1997) Skewing and darkening: Dynamics of the cool category. In C.L. Hardin and L. Maffi (eds), Color Categories in Thought and Language. Cambridge University Press.

· Maffi, Luisa (1990) Somali color term evolution: Grammatical and semantic evidence. Anthropological Linguistics 32: 316-334.

· Maffi, Luisa (1991) A bibliography of color categorization research, 1970-1990. In B. Berlin and P. Kay (eds), Basic Color Terms: Their Universality and Evolution. University of California Press.

· Magnus, Hugo (1880) Die Geschichtliche Entwickelung des Farbensinnes. Viet.

· Matsuzawa, T. (1985) Colour naming and classification in a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Journal of Human Evolution 14: 283-291.

· Miller, George A., and P. Johnson-Laird (1976) Language and Perception. Harvard University Press.

· Nida, Eugene A. (1959) Principles of translation as exemplified by Bible translating. In Reuben A. Brower (ed), On Translation. Harvard University Press.

· Ratliff, Floyd (1976) On the psychophysiological bases of universal color terms. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 120: 311-330.

· Ray, Verne (1952) Techniques and problems in the study of human color perception. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 8: 251-259.

· Ray, Verne (1953) Human color perception and behavioral response. Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences (Series 2) 16: 98-104.

· Sandell, J.H., Gross, C.G., and Bornstein, M.H. (1979) Color categories in macaques. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 93: 626-635.

· Saunders, B.A.C., and J. van Brakel (1995) Translating the World Color Survey. In K. Geuijen, D. Raven, and J. de Wolf (eds), Post-Modernism and Anthropology. Van Gorcum.

· Saunders, B.A.C., and J. van Brakel (1997) Are there non-trivial constraints on colour categorization? Brain and Behavioral Sciences 20: 167-232.

· Shepard, Roger (1992) The perceptual organization of colors. In J. Barkow, L. Cosmides, and J. Tooby (eds), The Adapted Mind. Oxford University Press.

· Stanlaw, J. (1993) Review of B.A.C. Saunders: The invention of basic colour terms. American Anthropologist 95(1): 183-184.

· Stefflre, Volney, Victor Castillo Vales, and Linda Morley (1966) Language and cognition in Yucatan: A cross-cultural replication. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 4: 112-115.

· Sternheim, C.E., and R.M. Boynton (1966) Uniqueness of perceived hues investigated with a continuous judgemental technique. Journal of Experimental Psychology 72: 770-776.

· Tornay, Serge (ed) (1978) Voir et Nommer les Couleurs. Service de Publication du Laboratoire d'Ethnologie et de Sociologie Comparative de l'Université de Paris X.

· Whorf, Benjamin L. (1956) Science and linguistics. In John B. Carroll (ed), Language, Thought and Reality: The Collected Papers of Benjamin Lee Whorf. MIT Press. Originally published in Technology Review 42 (1940): 229-231, 247-248.

· Wooten, B.R. (1970) The Effects of Simultaneous and Successive Chromatic Constraints on Spectral Hue. Ph.D. Dissertation. Brown University.

· Zollinger, Heinrich (1972) Human color vision: An interdisciplinary research problem. Palette 40: 1-7.

· Zollinger, Heinrich (1976) A linguistic approach to the cognition of colour vision. Folia Linguistica 9: 265-293.

· Zollinger, Heinrich (1979) Correlations between the neurobiology of colour vision and the psycholinguistics of colour naming. Experientia 35: 1-8.

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