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Mongol Empire

The following sources are recommended by an expert whose research specialty is the Mongol Empire.


Six Superlative Sources

· Allsen, Thomas T. Mongol Imperialism. University of California Press, 1987.

· Allsen, Thomas T. Culture and Conquest in Mongol Eurasia. Cambridge University Press, 2001.

· Morgan, David. The Mongols. Basil Blackwell, 1986.

· Halperin, Charles. Russia and the Golden Horde. Indiana University Press, 1987.

· Ratchnevsky, Paul. Genghis Khan: His Life and Legacy. Translated by Thomas Nivison Haining. Blackwell, 1992.

· Amitai-Preiss, Reuven, and David Morgan, editors. The Mongol Empire and Its Legacy. Brill, 2000.

Other Excellent Sources

· Allsen, Thomas T. Commodity and Exchange in the Mongol Empire: A Cultural History of Islamic Textiles. Cambridge University Press, 1997.

· Allsen, Thomas T. "Mongolian Princes and Their Merchant Partners, 1200-1260." Asia Major 2 (1989): 83-126.

· Allsen, Thomas T. "Prelude to the Western Campaigns: Mongol Military Operations in the Volga-Ural Region, 1217-1237." AEMA 3 (1983): 5-23.

· Allsen, Thomas T. "The Princes of the Left Hand." AEMA 5 (1987): 5-40.

· Allsen, Thomas T. "Mongol Census Taking in Rus, 1245-1275." Harvard Ukrainian Studies 5/1 (1981): 32-53.

· Allsen, Thomas T. "Mongols and North Caucasia." AEMA 7 (1987-1991): 5-40.

· Allsen, Thomas T. "The Yüan Dynasty and the Uighurs of Turfan in the 13th Century." China among Equals. Edited by Morris Rossabi. University of California Press, 1983, pp. 243-279.

· Amitai, Reuven. "Mongol Raids into Palestine." Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 2 (1987): 236-255.

· Amitai-Preiss, Reuven. "In the Aftermath of 'Ayn Jalüt: The Beginnings of the Mamlük-Ilkhänid Cold War." Al-Masäq 3 (1990): 1-21.

· Amitai-Preiss, Reuven. Mongols and Mamluks. Cambridge University Press, 1996.

· Amitai-Preiss, Reuven. "Ghazan, Islam, and Mongol Tradition: A View from the Mamlûk Sultanate." BSOAS 59 (1996): 1-10.

· Amitai, Reuven. "The Conversion of Tegüder Ilkhan to Islam." Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam 25 (2001): 15-43.

· Biran, Michal. Qaidu and the Rise of the Independent Mongol State in Central Asia. Curzon Press, 1997.

· Boyle, J.A. "The Last Barbarian Invaders: The Impact of the Mongol Conquests upon East and West." Memoirs and Proceedings of the Manchester Litereary and Philosophical Society 112 (1970): 1-15. Reprinted in The Mongol World Empire, 1206-1370, edited by John A. Boyle, Variorum Reprints, 1977.

· Boyle, J.A. "The Mongols and Europe." History Today 15 (1965): 336-343. Reprinted in The Mongol World Empire, 1206-1370, edited by John A. Boyle, Variorum Reprints, 1977.

· Boyle, J.A. "The Il-Khans of Persia and the Christian West." History Today 23 (1973): 554-563. Reprinted in The Mongol World Empire, 1206-1370, edited by John A. Boyle, Variorum Reprints, 1977.

· Boyle, J.A., ed. The Mongol World Empire, 1206-1370. Variorum Reprints, 1977.

· Boyle, J.A. "The Mongol Invasion of Eastern Persia." History Today 15 (1965): 614-623. Reprinted in The Mongol World Empire, 1206-1370, edited by John A. Boyle, Variorum Reprints, 1977.

· Boyle, J.A. "The Capture of Isfahan by the Mongols." Atti del Convegno Internazionale sul Tema: La Persia nel Medioevo. Rome, 1971, pp. 331-336. Reprinted in The Mongol World Empire, 1206-1370, edited by John A. Boyle, Variorum Reprints, 1977.

· Boyle, J.A. "The Mongol Commanders in Afghanistan and India According to the Tabaqat-i-Nasiri of Juzjani." Central Asiatic Journal 9 (1964): 235-247. Reprinted in The Mongol World Empire, 1206-1370, edited by John A. Boyle, Variorum Reprints, 1977.

· Boyle, J.A. "Kirakos of Ganjak on the Mongols." Central Asiatic Journal 8 (1963): 199-214. Reprinted in The Mongol World Empire, 1206-1370, edited by John A. Boyle, Variorum Reprints, 1977.

· Boyle, J.A. "Minorsky's Marginal Commentary on Houdas's Translation of Nasavi's Life of Sultan Jalal-ad-Din Khwarazm-Shah." Yadname-ye Minorsky. Tehran, 1969, pp. 1-7. Reprinted in The Mongol World Empire, 1206-1370, edited by John A. Boyle, Variorum Reprints, 1977.

· Boyle, J.A. "The Death of the Last 'Abbasid Caliph: A Contemporary Muslim Account." Journal of Semitic Studies 6 (1961): 145-50. Reprinted in The Mongol World Empire, 1206-1370, edited by John A. Boyle, Variorum Reprints, 1977.

· Boyle, J.A. "Some Additional Notes on the Mongolian Names in the History of the Nation of the Archers." Researches in Altaic Languages. Budapest, 1975, pp. 33-42.

· Boyle, J.A., trans. and ed. 'Ala-ad-Din 'Ata-Malik Juvaini. The History of the World-Conqueror. 2 Vols. Harvard University Press, 1958.

· Boyle, J.A., ed. The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. 5, The Saljuq and Mongol Periods. Cambridge University Press, 1968.

· Boyle, J.A. "Dynastic and Political History of the Il-Khans." In Boyle, The Cambridge History of Iran, pp. 303-421.

· Boyle, J.A., trans. and ed. Rashid al Din. The Sucessors of Genghis Khan. Columbia University Press, 1971.

· Boyle, J.A. "The Summer and Winter Camping Grounds of the Kereit." CAJ 17 (1973): 108-110.

· Boyle, J.A. "Turkish and Mongol Shamanism in the Middle Ages." Folklore 83 (1972): 177-193.

· Boyle, J.A. "A Form of Horse Sacrifice amongst the 13th and 14th Century Mongols." CAJ 10 (1965): 145-150.

· Boyle, J.A. "The Burial Place of the Great Khan Ögödei." Acta Orientalia 33 (1970): 45-51.

· Buell, Paul D. "Kalmyk Tanggaci People: Thoughts on the Mechanics and Impact of Mongol Expansion." Mongolian Studies 6 (1980): 41-59.

· Buell, Paul D. "The Mongols and the Near East." A History of the Crusades. Edited by Kenneth Setton. Vol. 2, pp. 715-732.

· Buell, Paul D. "Sino-Khitan Administration in Mongol Bukhara." Journal of Asian History 13/2 (1979): 121-151.

· Buell, Paul D. "The Role of the Sino-Mongolian Frontier Zone in the Rise of Cinggis-Qan." In Studies on Mongolia: Proceedings of the First North American Conference on Mongolian Studies. Edited by H.G. Schwarz. Western Washington University, 1979, pp. 63-76.

· Buell, Paul D. "Steppe Perspectives on the Medieval History of China: Modern Mongol Scholarship on the Liao, Chin, and Yüan Periods." Zentralasiatische Studien 15 (1981): 129-149.

· Buell, Paul D., Eugene N. Anderson, and Charles Perry, trans. A Soup for the Qan Chinese Dietary Medicine of the Mongol Era As Seen Hu Szu-hui's Yin-shan Cheng-yao. Kegan Paul International (Sir Henry Wellcome Asian Series), 2000.

· Cleaves, F.W. "The Mongolian Names and Terms in The History of the Nation of the Archers by Grigor of Akanc." HJAS 12 (1949): 400-443.

· Cleaves, F.W., trans. and ed. The Secret History of the Mongols. Harvard University Press, 1982.

· Cleaves, F.W. "The Initial Formulae in a Communication of a Mongolian Viceroy to the King of Korea." Journal of Turkish Studies 3 (1979): 65-88.

· Cleaves, F.W. "The Historicity of the Baljuna Covenant." HJAS 18 (1955): 357-421.

· Cleaves, F.W. "The Mongolian Documents in the Musee Teheran." HJAS 16 (1953): 1-107.

· Cleaves, F.W. "An Early Mongolian Loan Contract from Qara Qoto." HJAS 18 (1955): 1-49.

· Cleaves, F.W. "Qabqanas-Qamqanas." HJAS 19 (1956): 390-406.

· Cleaves, F.W. "Teb Tenggeri." UAJ 39 (1967): 248-260.

· Dawson, Christopher, ed. The Mongol Mission: Narratives and Letters of the Franciscan Missionaries in Mongolia and China in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries. Translated by a nun of Stanbrook Abbey. Sheed and Ward, 1955.

· Gaadamba, S. Mongolyn Nuuts Tovchoo. Ulsiin Khevleliin Gazar, 1990.

· Grousset, René. The Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia. Translated from the French by Naomi Walford. Rutgers University Press, 1970.

· Halperin, Charles. The Tatar Yoke. Slavica Publishers, 1985.

· Halperin, Charles. "Russia and the 'Mongol Yoke': Concepts of Conquest, Liberation, and the Chingissid Idea." AEMA II (1982): 99-108.

· Halperin, Charles. "The Kipchak Connection: The Ilkhans, the Mamluks, and Ayn Jalut." BSOAS 63 (2000): 229-245.

· Hambis, Louis. Le Chapitre CVII Du Yuan Che. Translated by Louis Hambis. E.J. Brill, 1954.

· Hambis, Louis. "La Lettre Mongle du Gouverneur de Karak." Acta Or. Hung. 15 (1962): 143-146.

· Hambis, Louis. "Le Mong-Kou Che Hi Pou et les Sources Mongoles de l'Histoire des Mongols." 22nd ICO (Istanbul) 2 (1951): 359-365.

· Hambis, Louis. "Notes sur Kam, Nom de l'Yenissei Superieur." JA 244 (1956): 281-300.

· Hambis, Louis. "L'Histoire des Mongols Avant Gengis-Khan d'Apres les Sources Chinoises et Mongoles, et la Documentation Conservee par Rasidu-D'Din." CAJ 14 (1970): 125-133.

· Hambis, Louis. "Notes sur Trois Tribus de l'Yenissei Superiur: Les Us, Qapganas et Talangut." JA 245 (1957): 25-36.

· Hambis, Louis. "Deux Noms Chretiens chez les Tatar." JA 241 (1953): 473-475.

· Hsiao, Ch'i-ch'ing. The Military Establishment of the Yuan Dynasty. Council on East Asian Studies at Harvard University, 1978.

· Humphreys, R. Stephen. From Saladin to the Mongols: The Ayyubids of Damascus, 1193 to 1260. State University of New York Press, 1977.

· Jackson, Peter. "The Dissolution of the Mongol Empire." Central Asiatic Journal 22 (1978): 186-244.

· Juvaini, `Ala-ad-Din `Ata-Malik. The History of the World-Conqueror. 2 Vols. Translated from the Persian by J.A. Boyle. Harvard University Press, 1958.

· Juzjani, Minhaj Siraj. Tabakat-i-Nasiri. 2 Vols. Markazi Urdu Bord, 1975.

· Khazanov, Anatoly M. "Muhammad and Jenghiz Khan Compared: The Religious Factor in World Empire Building." Comparative Studies in Society and History 35/3 (1993): 461-480.

· Khazanov, Anatoly M. "The Spread of World Religions in Medieval Nomadic Societies of the Eurasian Steppes." Nomadic Diplomacy, Destruction and Religion from the Pacific to the Adriatic, Toronto Studies in Central and Inner Asia No. 1 (1994): 11-33.

· Krader, L. "Feudalism and the Tatar Policy of the Middle Ages." Comp. Stud. Soc. Hist. 1 (1958): 76-99.

· Krader, L. Social Organization of the Mongol-Turkic Pastoral Nomads. Mouton, 1963.

· Krader, L. The Formation of the State. Prentice Hall, 1968. Chapter 6, "The Tatar State: Turks and Mongols," pp. 82-103.

· Krader, L. "Qan-Qagan and the Beginnings of Mongol Kingship." CAJ 1 (1955): 17-35.

· Krader, L. "The Cultural and Historical Position of the Mongols." AM 3 (1952): 169-183.

· Martin, H.D. The Rise of Chingis Khan and His Conquest of North China. The Johns Hopkins Press, 1950.

· Morgan, David. "The Mongol Armies in Persia." Der Islam 56 (1976): 80-96.

· Morgan, David. "The Mongols in Syria, 1260-1300." Crusade and Settlement. Edited by P.W. Edbury. University College Cardiff Press, 1985, pp. 191-196.

· Morgan, David. "Cassiodorus and Rashid Al-Din on Barbarian Rule in Italy and Persia." Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 44/1 (1981): 120-125.

· Morgan, David. "Who Ran the Mongol Empire?" Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1982): 124-36.

· Morgan, David. "Persian Historians and the Mongols." Medieval Historical Writing in the Christian and Islamic Worlds. Edited by D.O. Morgan. University of London Press, 1982, pp. 109-124.

· Morgan, David. "The 'Great Yasa of Chingiz Khan' and Mongol Law in the Ilkhanate." Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 49/1 (1986): 163-176.

· Moses, Larry. "Legends by the Numbers: The Symbolism of Numbers in the Secret History of the Mongols." Asian Folklore Studies 56 (1996): 73-98.

· Moses, Larry. "Triplicated Triplets: The Number Nine in the Secret History of the Mongols." Asian Folklore Studies 45/2 (1986): 287-294.

· Moses, Larry. "The Quarrelling Sons in the Secret History of the Mongols." Journal of American Folklore 100 (1987): 63-69.

· Ohsson, G.D. Histoire des Mongols: Depuis Tchinguiz-Khan jusqu'a Timour Bey ou Tamerlan. 4 vols. Les Frères Van Cleef, 1834.

· Ostrowski, Donald. "The Mongols Origins of Muscovite Political Institutions." Slavic Review 49 (1990): 525-543.

· Ostrowski, Donald. Muscovy and the Mongols: Cross-Cultural Influences on the Steppe Frontier, 1304-1589. Cambridge University Press, 1998.

· Pelliot, Paul, and Louis Hambis. Histoire des Campagnes de Gengis Khan: Cheng-Wou Ts'in-Tcheng Lou. E.J. Brill, 1951.

· Pelliot, Paul. "Les Mongols et la Papauté." Revue de l'Orient Chrétien 4 (1924): 225-335.

· Pelliot, Paul. Notes sur l'Histoire de la Horde D'Or. Librairie d'Amerique et d'Orient, Adrien-Maisonneuve, 1949.

· Pelliot, Paul. Histoire Secrete des Mongols: Restitution du Texte Mongol et Traduction Francaise des Chapitres I a VI. (Oeuvres Posthumnes de Paul Pelliot, 1) Paris, 1949. R. by Nicholas Poppe, HJAS 13 (1950): 262-268.

· Pelliot, Paul. "Deux Lacunes dans le Texte Mongol Actuel de l'Historie Secrete des Mongols." JA 232 (1940): 1-18.

· Pelliot, Paul. "Un Passage Altere dans le Texte Mongol Ancien de l'Historie Secrete des Mongoles." TP 27 (1930): 199-202.

· Pelliot, Paul. "Qubciri-Qubchir et Qubci'ur-Qubcur." TP 37 (1944): 153-164.

· Pelliot, Paul. "L'Edition Collective des Oeuvres de Wang Kouo-Wei." TP 26 (1929): 113-182.

· Pelliot, Paul. "Le Pretendu Mot 'Iascot' chez Guillaume de Rubrouck." TP 27 (1930): 190-192.

· Pelliot, Paul. "Une Tribu Meconnue des Naiman: Les Batakin." TP 37 (1944): 35-72.

· Pelliot, Paul. "A Propos des Coman." JA 15 (1920): 125-185.

· Pelliot, Paul. "Les Systemes d'Ecriture en Eusage chez les Anciens Mongols." AM 2 (1925): 284-289.

· Pelliot, Paul. Notes on Marco Polo. 3 vols. Imprimerie National, 1959-73.

· Pelliot, Paul. "Le Nom Turc du Vin dans Odoric de Pordenone." TP 15 (1914): 448-453.

· Pelliot, Paul. "Sur Yam ou Jam, 'Relais Postal.'" TP 27 (1930): 192-195.

· Pelliot, Paul. "Une Ville Muslmane dans la Chine du Nord sous les Mongols." JA 211 (1927): 261-279.

· Pelliot, Paul. "Christianity in Central Asia in the Middle Ages." JRCAS 17 (1930): 301-312.

· Pelliot, Paul. "Chretiens d'Asie Centrale et d'Extreme-Orient." TP 15 (1914): 623-644.

· Petrushevsky, I.P. "Socio-Economic Conditions of Iran under the Il-Khans." Cambridge History of Iran: The Saljuq and Mongol Periods. Edited by John A. Boyle. Cambridge University Press, 1968.

· Petrushevsky, I.P. "Rashid al-Dins Conception of the State." Central Asiatic Journal 14 (1970): 148-62.

· Polo, Marco. The Travels of Marco Polo. Translated by Ronald Latham. Penguin Books, 1958.

· Rachewiltz, Igor de. Papal Envoys to the Great Khans. Faber and Faber, 1971.

· Rachewiltz, Igor de. "Yeh-lu C'u-ts'ai (1189-1243): Buddhist Idealist and Confucian Statesman." Confucain Personalities. Edited by A.F. Wright and D. Twitchett. Standford University Press, 1962, pp. 189-216.

· Rachewiltz, Igor de. "Some Remarks on the Dating of the Secret History of the Mongols." Monumentica Serica 24 (1965): 185-206.

· Rachewiltz, Igor de. "Personnel and Personalites in North China in the Early Mongol Period." Journal of the Economics and Social History of the Orient 9 (1966): 88-144.

· Rachewiltz, Igor de. "Some Remarks on the Ideological Foundations of Chinggis Khan's Empire." Papers in Far Eastern History 7 (1973): 21-36.

· Rachewiltz, Igor de. The Secret History of the Mongols. Translated from Mongolian by the author. In Papers on Far Eastern History 4 (September 1971): 115-163; 5 (March 1972): 149-175; 10 (September 1974): 55-82; 13 (March 1976): 41-75; 16 (September 1977): 27-65; 18 (September 1978): 43-80; 21 (March 1980): 17-57; 23 (March 1981): 111-146; 26 (September 1982): 39-84; 30 (September 1984): 81-160; 31 (March 1985): 21-93; 33 (March 1986): 129-137.

· Rachewiltz, Igor de. Index to the Secret History of the Mongols. Indiana University, 1972.

· Rashid ad-Din. Jami at-Tawarikh. Edited by Bahman Karimi. Eqbal, 1965.

· Rashid al-Din. The Successors of Genghis Khan. Translated from Persian to English by John A. Boyle. Columbia University Press, 1971.

· Rashiduddin Fazlullah. Jami'u't-tawarikh: Compendium of Chronicles. Translated from the Persian by W.M. Thackston. Parts 1-3. Sources of Oriental Languages and Literatures, Vol. 45. Edited by Sinasi Tekn and Gönül Alpay Tekin. Central Asian Sources IV. Harvard University Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations, 1998.

· Saunders, J.J. The History of the Mongol Conquests. Barnes and Noble, 1971.

· Saunders, J.J. "The Mongol Defeat at Ain Jalut and the Restoration of the Greek Empire." Muslims and Mongols: Essays on Medieval Asia. Whitcoulls for the University of Canterbury, 1977, pp. 67-76.

· Saunders, J.J. "Matthew Paris and the Mongols." Essays in Medieval History Presented to Bertie Wilkinson. Edited by T.A. Sandquist and M.R. Powicke. University of Toronto Press, 1969.

· Saunders, J.J. "The Nomad as Empire Builder: A Comparison of the Arab and Mongol Conquests." Diogenes 52 (1965): 79-103.

· Saunders, J.J. "Genghis Khan and the Communists." History Today 20 (1970): 390-396.

· Schamiloglu, Uli. "The Qaraci Beys of the Later Golden Horde: Notes on the Organization of the Mongol World Empire." AEMA 4 (1984): 283-297.

· Schamiloglu, Uli. "Preliminary Remarks on the Role of Disease in the History of the Golden Horde." Central Asian Survey 12/4 (1993): 447-457.

· Schurmann, H.F. "Mongolian Tributary Practices of the Thirteenth Century." HJAS 19 (1956): 304-389.

· Schurmann, H.F. Economic Structure of the Yuan Dynasty: Translation of Chapters 93 and 94 of the Yuan Shih. Harvard University Press, 1956.

· Schurmann, H.F. "Problems of Political Organization during the Yuan Dynasty." In 25th International Congress of Orientalists, Moscow, 1960. Moscow, 1963, pp. 26-31.

· Sinor, Denis. "Horse and Pasture in Inner Asian History." Oriens Extremus 19 (1972): 171-184.

· Sinor, Denis. "The Mongols and Western Europe." A History of the Crusades. Vol. III. Edited by Kenneth M. Setton. University of Wisconsin Press, 1975, pp. 513-544.

· Sinor, Denis. "Un Voyageur du Treizieme Siecle: Le Dominicain Julien de Hongrie." Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 14/3 (1952): 589-602.

· Sinor, Denis. Inner Asia and Its Contacts with Medieval Europe. Variorum Reprints, 1977.

· Sinor, Denis. "The Inner Asian Warriors." JAOS 101/2 (1981): 133-144.

· Sinor, Denis. "John of Plano Carpini's Return from the Mongols: New Light from a Luxemburg Manuscript." JRAS (1957): 193-206.

· Smith, John Masson. "'Ayn Jalat: Mamluk Success or Mongol Failure?" Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 44 (1984): 307-345.

· Smith, John Masson. "Mongol and Nomadic Taxation." HJAS 30 (1970): 46-85.

· Smith, John Masson. "Mongol Campaign Rations: Milk, Marmots, and Blood?" Journal of Turkish Studies 8 (1984): 223-228.

· Smith, John Masson. "Mongol Manpower and Persian Population." Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 18/3 (1975): 271-299.

· Smith, John Masson. "Mongol Society and Military in the Middle East: Antecedents and Adaptations." War and Society in the Eastern Mediterranean, 7th and 15th Centuries. Edited by Yaacov Lev. The Medieval Mediterranean Peoples, Economies, and Cultures, 400-1453. Vol. 9. Edited by Michael Whitby, Paul Magalino, Hugh Keenedy, et al. Brill, 1997.

· Smith, John Masson. "Demographic Considerations in Mongol Siege Warfare." Archivum Ottomanicum 13 (1993-1994): 329-335.

· Smpad. La Chronique Attribuee au Connetable Smbat. Translated and Edited by Gerard Dedeyan. Librairie Orientaliste Paul Geuthner, 1980.

· Somogyi, Joseph De. "Adh-Dhahabi's 'Ta'rikh Al-Islam' as an Authority on the Mongol Invasion of the Caliphate." JRAS 4 (October, 1936): 595-604.

· Somogyi, Joseph De. "Adh-Dhahabi's Record of the Destrucion of Damascus by the Mongols in 699-700 and 1299-1301." Goldziher Mem. I (1948): 353-386.

· Sperling, Elliot. "Hülegü and Tibet." AOH 44 (1990): 145-157.

· Spuler, Bertold. Die Mongolen in Iran. Akademie-Verlag, 1968.

· Spuler, Bertold. History of the Mongols: Based on Eastern and Western Accounts of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries. Translated from the German by Helga Drummond and Stuart Drummond. A volume in the Islamic World series, edited by G.E. Von Grunebaum. University of California Press, 1972.

· Spuler, Bertold. "Le Christianisme chez les Mongols aux XIIIe et XIVe Siecles." Tractata Altaica Denis Sinor...Dedicata Wiesbaden (1976): 621-631.

· Togan, Isenbike. Flexibility and Limitation in Steppe Formations: The Kerait Khanate and Chinggis Khan. Vol. 15 of the Ottoman Empire and Its Heritage. Brill, 1998.

· Vasary, Istvan. "The Origin of the Institution of Basqaqs." Acta Or. Hung 32 (1978): 201-206.

· Vasary, Istvan. "The Golden Horde Term Daruga and Its Survival in Russia." AOH 30 (1976): 187-197.

· Vasary, Istvan. "The Institution of Foster-Brothers (Emildäs and Kökäldäs) in the Chinggisid States." AOH 36 (1982): 549-562.

· Vasary, Istvan. "History and Legend in Berke Khan's Conversion to Islam." Aspects of Altaic Civilization III: Proceedings of the Thirtieth Meeting of the Permanent International Altaistic Conference, Indiana University, June 19-25, 1987. Indiana University Research Insitute for Inner Asian Studies, 1990.

· Vasary, Istvan. "Mongolian Impact on the Terminology of the Documents of the Golden Horde." AOH 48 (1995): 479-485.

· Vernadsky, George. The Mongols and Russia. Yale University Press, 1953.

· Vernadsky, George. "The Scope and Contents of Chingis Khan's Yasa." HJAS 3 (1938): 337-360.

· Vladimirtsov, B. Le Régime Social des Mongols: Le Féodalisme Nomade. Translated from Russian to French by René Grousset. Librairie D'Amerique et D'Orient, 1948.

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